Apollo Health Blog
CABG surgery is the most common surgical procedure for treating coronary artery disease. In this surgery, a vein or artery from another part of the body is used to create a new path for blood to flow to the heart, bypassing the blocked artery. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of all adult non-maternal admissions to California hospitals, representing nearly 9% of all admissions. It is a chronic condition in which cholesterol and fat solidify to form plaque along the linings of the coronary arteries. If plaque continues to build up, blood vessels can be restricted or blocked leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
CABG surgery involves bypassing the blocked coronary arteries with a blood vessel graft. These grafts are usually taken from patients own arteries and veins located in the chest (thoracic), leg (saphenous) or arm (radial). The graft goes around the blocked artery (or arteries) to create new pathways for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart.
Apollo Health City trains healthcare providers, caregivers and general public, in responding to emergencies through their Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) training programs. One of Which is BLS (Basic Life Support)
Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary Artery Disease or CAD is one of the major killers in India. In recent times CAD is effecting the youth as well. Busy lifestyles, stress, habits like oking,alcohol, and fatty foods are leading to CAD in youth.
Heart Attacks (Myocardial infraction) are a manifestation of CAD′s. Blockage or narrowing of coronary arteries leads to CAD′s. The arteries supply blood to theheart; blockages caused in arteries like cholesterol, narrowing, atherosclerosis restrict blood flow to the heart. The heart starves for oxygen and nutrient rich blood causing an infraction or heart attack.
Ischemia is a condition where the heart muscle gets cramped due to lack of blood.
Acute coronary syndrome is 3 types
- Angina- Poor blood supply to the heart for a small period is called angina. It can last over a period of time and can be treated with oral medications. Patient having known CAD carry their oral medications all the time.
- Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): In such infractions the ECG does not record any changes. In such scenarios chemical markers are used to diagnose it
- ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): Blockage in the supply of blood for a long period affect the heart muscle to a large extent. ECG and chemical markers show immediate changes.
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Excessive sweating
- Pain from the chest to the arms
- Stress Test
- Chest X Ray
- Ultra sound
- Blood Investigations
Advanced diagnostics involves Catheterization and Angiogram
Lifestyle Modifications: Patients diagnosed in initial stages of CHD are recommended to make life style modifications like quit smoking, reduce alcohol consumption, exercise, food modifications, monitoring blood pressure and diabetes and medications are prescribed by your cardiologist accordingly
Interventional procedures are mostly used to open up blockages in the arteries. There are 3 types of interventional procedures
- PTCA (Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty) or Balloon Angioplasty:: This procedure involves placing of a small balloon at the tip of the catheter and inserting it in to the blocked artery. Once the balloon reached the blocked are it is inflated leading to dilation of the area.
- Stent: A stent is a small metal tube that is inserted in to the blocked artery through the balloon. The metal tube restricts the blockage.
- Rotablation (Percutaneous Transluminal Rotational Atherectomy or PTRA): A diamond tip catheter is inserted in to the blocked artery. It is then rotated at high speed to clear the blockage.
There are many advanced stents used in the treatment procedures at the Heart Institute. Write to our experts on email@example.com to find out more about the options available.
Healthy diet and lifestyle are the best weapons to fight against cardiovascular disease. It all depends upon on your eating pattern. Make good choices’ in your diet and lifestyle and get long time benefits for your heart. Heart disease affects people of all ages.
These are some of the good and healthy choices in your life style which will keep away you for the cardiovascular diseases and you can lead a healthy life:
- Knowing how many calories you should be eating and drinking to maintain your weight.
- Increase the amount and intensity of your physical activity to match the number of calories you take in.
Regular physical activity and cardiovascular fitness can help you maintain your weight which can solve half of yours cardiac problems , aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise in the day it can be any kind of exercise it can be a yoga, or aerobic etc.
Benefits of Regular Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors
- Increase in exercise tolerance
- Reduction in body weight
- Reduction in blood pressure
- Reduction in bad (LDL and total) cholesterol
- Increase in good (HDL) cholesterol
- Increase in insulin sensitivity
- Add all the food groups in our daily diet like whole fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish and nuts, while limiting red meat and sugary foods and beverages.
- Limit foods and beverages high in calories, Also limit canned & preserved foods and limit the sodium content in the diet.
- Read the nutrition label of the food item which you pick up from the supermarkets
- Add a loopful of nuts in your diet mainly almonds and walnuts which are the good sources of HDL (good cholesterol)
- Alcoholic beverages should be taken in moderation.
- Foods that have hypocholesterolmic effects like soyabean, fenugreek, garlic, onion and turmeric should be included in the diet
Department of Clinical Nutrition,
Apollo Health City, Hyderabad
Waterborne diseases are caused by microorganisms that most commonly are transmitted in contaminated fresh water. Infection commonly results during washing, drinking, and using contaminated water in preparing food. Microorganisms causing diseases include protozoa, bacteria, virus, many of which are intestinal parasites, or invade the tissues or circulatory system through walls of the digestive tract.
- Symptoms are Characterized by sustained fever up to 40°C (104°F), profuse sweating; diarrhea may occur. Symptoms progress to delirium, and the spleen and liver enlarge if untreated. In this case it can last up to four weeks and cause death. Some people with typhoid fever develop a rash called “rose spots”, small red spots on the abdomen and chest.
- Symptoms are In severe forms it is known to be one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. Symptoms include very watery diarrhea, nausea, cramps, nosebleed, rapid pulse, vomiting, and hypovolemic shock (in severe cases), at which point death can occur in 12–18 hours.
- Symptoms are Mostly diarrhea. Can cause death in immunocompromised individuals, the very young, and the elderly due to dehydration from prolonged illness
- Symptoms are Dry mouth, blurred and/or double vision, difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, slurred speech, vomiting and sometimes diarrhea. Death is usually caused by respiratory failure.
- Symptoms are Frequent passage of feces with blood and/or mucus and in some cases vomiting of blood.
- Symptoms are Occurs due to swimming in contaminated water
- Symptoms include fever, myalgia, lethargy, gastrointestinal symptoms, cough, and sore throat
- Symptoms are only acute and include Fatigue, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, itching, jaundice and depression.
- Symptoms are Delirium, headache, fever, and occasional seizures, and spastic paralysis, 1% have symptoms of non-paralytic aseptic meningitis. The rest have serious symptoms resulting in paralysis or death
Dr.Pramati reddy, MBBS, MD
Consultant Internal Medicine
Snoring is noisy breathing during sleep.
Why snoring should not be ignored?
It is of 2 types
1) Simple snoring which is sound distrubance to ur spouse or family members and embarrassment to u at public places.
2) Sleep apnoea – where breathing stops for few seconds repeatedly during the entire sleep.
What are the causes for sleep apnoea ?
-nasal airway obstruction like septal deviation, nasal polyps, turbinate hypertrophy.
-enlarged tonsils and adenoids in children
How Sleep apnoea affects you ?
-disturbs sleep – due to repeated awakenings
-causes daytime sleepiness – increased risk of accidents
-increases blood pressure
-increased risk of stroke
How is it diagnosed ?
Sleep test (polysomnography) done to asses various parameters of the body and to decide the course of treatment.
Obstructive sleep apnoea should be treated promptly to prevent complications.
So anyone who snores should consult ENT specialist to rule out sleep apnoea.
Dr. G. S. Reddy,
Apollo Health City, Hyderabad
is a sub-specialty under Cardiology which deals with foetus, neonates , infants and children with congenital and acquired heart defects and adults with congenital heart defects. This division caters to a large number of patients and provide diagnostic and therapeutic services them and referral to surgical specialist when needed.
DASH is a “dietary approach to stop hypertension”. It is one of the various life style measures that are recommended for control of hypertension. Hypertension means high blood pressure. Blood pressure in an individual may be primary (where cause is not known) or it may be a manifestation of some other systemic diseases. The second one responds with the treatment of the associated systemic diseases.
When the Blood pressure is > 140/90 mm of Hg, we call it a case of hypertension. Various factors influences hypertension – age, sex, ethnicity, Diet, Smoking, obesity, exercise, drugs, etc. Out of these eight factors, last five factors are modifiable risk factors ie. We can rectify them whereas age, sex and ethnicity we can not change.
Now question may arise – why we should control hypertension? Hypertension to be treated because it affects the target organs like Heart, kidney, CNS, eyes. So there is a consensus all over the world that Hypertension to be treated in order to avoid target organ damage.
Blood pressure may be treated by Drugs or Life style changes or both. DASH is one of the popular life style measures to treat hypertension. DASH diet regimen comprises a diet with potassium, magnesium, fiber, vegetables, low fat dairy products like fish, white meat. The red meat, high sodium and saturated fat are avoided. In multicentre studies it was seen that DASH diet regimen reduces blood pressure in a non hypertensive patients by 5.6/3 mm of Hg. But the response is much better in hypertensive patients (11.5/6 mm of Hg). The effectiveness of DASH diet is seen in all independent of age, sex and ethnicity.
The only disadvantage of DASH diet is treatment of hypertension due to Chronic Kidney disease where increase in potassium in diet will cause potassium toxicity leading to heart rhythm disturbances including cardiac arrest.
Sr. Consultant ( Internal Medicine)
Frequency: 3-5 days per week. Exercise can be extended up to six days in a week, but not recommended for all seven days in a week since the body requires proper rest to tolerate exercise stress.
Intensity: should be decided on the basis of target heart rate. Calculation of Target Heart Rate (THR): THR = 60%-85% of maximum heart rate = 0.6-0.8 x (220 – age) (220 – age = predicted maximum heart rate)
For a 40-year old person, predicted maximum heart rate is 220-40 = 180. The THR = 0.6 x 180 = 108 beats per minute to 0.8 X 180 = 146.
Therefore, it is recommended to go for continuous activity (jogging, walking, cycling, stair climbing, rowing, aerobics, and swimming etc) at such a speed that heart will pump in a range between 108 – 146 beats per minute.
Symptoms to watch out for –
* Persistent difficulty in breathing, wheezing, chest pain or cough or blood in the sputum.
* Chest pain that worsens on taking a deep breath or travels from the shoulder to the arm.
If any of the above is present, especially with unexplained loss of weight or fatigue, it is time to see a doctor as soon as possible. Unfortunately, there are no symptoms in the majority of patients at an early stage and symptoms typically develop at a later stage.
Check for –
There are no specific things you can look out for yourself, but your doctor may begin with a chest X-ray or CT scan, which may prove to be revealing.