Apollo Health Blog
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is (PCOS) is a common female hormone disorder seen in women during their reproductive years (age group 16 to 40 years).
It affects about 20% of women. The affected women usually complain of
- Irregular menstrual cycles
- Extra facial and body hair
- Thinning of hair on scalp and
- Weight gain
The signs and symptom may begin soon after menarche and in some cases in response to weight gain.
The cause of this condition is still not clearly understood. PCOS results from hormonal disturbances in the body. Such women have higher incidence of insulin resistance which means that their ability to use insulin is impaired. Hence pancreas secretes more insulin which in turn interferes with ovulation. Also there is a hereditary factor to it. Women whose mother or sister has PCOS have a higher chance of getting effected.
These women may have difficulty in conceiving (Infertility).When carrying they have a higher incidence of miscarriage, gestational diabetes high blood pressure and a higher likelihood of having a premature delivery. Such women are prone to have type 2 Diabetes, Dyslipedimeas, high blood pressure and endometrial cancer in later life
Ultrasound is an important diagnostic too which when used in conjunction with clinical findings can help in diagnosing the condition.
- Lifestyle modification is one of the key aspect of managing patients with PCOS Women should aim at maintain a healthy weight by proper diet and exercise.
- Menstrual cycle regulation is done by using combination oral contraceptive pills or by using progesterone in the second half of the cycle.
- Use of Metformin improves insulin resistance
- Clomiphene Citrate is given to women who are anxious to conceive
Early diagnosis and treatment helps to prevent serious health problems such as Diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Dr. Bandana, MBBS, DGO,
Apollo Hospitals, Secunderabad
Autism is a brain disorder that hinders a person’s ability to communicate or relate to others. It is thought to be a genetic disorder, as it often runs in families. This disorder can also affect how a child understands and processes information that is sensory in nature.
Autism is usually diagnosed by the time a child reaches the age of three; however, some cases are not diagnosed until later. Typically parents are the first to notice the signs and seek the advice of their pediatrician.
Signs and Symptoms of Autism:
- Toddlers dont talk or they don’t try talk like trying to speak small words.
- Slight or no eye contact with others
- Plays alone
- Delayed language development
- Resistance to any change or learn
Treatment methods: behavioral, speech, and occupational therapy, parent education, and sometimes medications. Since each child with autism is different, treatment methods are usually individualized.
A Stroke is a condition causing temporary or permanent loss of brain functions due to lack of blood supply and oxygen to the brain. It may be caused either by a clot blocking the blood vessels in the brain or by broken blood vessel bleeding into the brain.
Symptoms of stroke appear suddenly and include:
– Sudden numbness or paralysis, especially on one side of the body
– Sudden Weakness
– Speech problem- unable to speak properly.
– Vision problem
– Loss of balance
– Loss of coordination
– Sudden severe headache
When a stroke occurs, there is a drug which can be given to dissolve the clot. However this drug must be given within 3 hours of onset of the symptoms to be effective. Therefore it is very important to take the person having a stroke, immediately to a stroke center. Stroke treatment varies from patient to patient and depends on the severity as well as the kind of stroke. Permanent damage to the brain cells due to lack of blood supply cannot be undone but treatment is given to control the stroke and prevent another one from happening. Immediate medical aid should be given to lessen the damage and further treatment may include medication, surgery and rehabilitation.
Remember, when stroke occurs, contact the nearest Apollo Emergency immediately.
Minors falls which lead to sprains can happen at anytime, especially in growing children and during sports activities. A sprain occurs when a ligament (this is the tissue which connects two bones together) gets overstretched.
In case of sprains, always remember RICE. These 4 steps, if effectively followed, can significantly reduce the healing time of the affected tissue and can prevent the worsening of the injury.
REST – The injured area will have pain and swelling. It is important to avoid any movement of the affected area to prevent worsening of the injury and also to facilitate the healing process.
ICE – Immediate application of ice at the affected site will reduce the amount of swelling that can develop at the injured site. It also reduces the pain.
COMPRESSION – Use an elastic crepe bandage to apply gentle compression at the affected site. This will help in immobilizing the affected part and also reduce the pain and swelling.
ELEVATION – Elevating the affected part on a pillow will also help in reducing the swelling at the affected site.
Use pain relieving spray or gel. Ex. Relispray, Volini, Nise, etc
Avoid massage of the injured site.
Avoid heat application or dipping in hot water – this can increase the swelling of the affected site.
Do not try and move to ascertain the range of movements.
Avoid weight bearing on the affected limb.
NEVER try to reposition a deformed limb on your own.
In case of severe pain, swelling, bleeding, deformity or fracture, contact the nearest Apollo Emergency immediately.
A nose bleed is one of the common complaints seen, especially in children. The most common cause is a minor injury to the inside of the nostril due to nose picking, irritation or a foreign object. Sometimes a nose infection like a cold can cause dryness and bleeding.
If a person has a nosebleed, make him/her sit on a chair and lean forward, and pinch the nose with thumb and index finger for about 5-10 minutes. This will compress the area which most commonly bleeds. A small ice pack can also be applied over the nose to constrict the blood vessels. Once the bleeding has stopped, avoid picking or blowing the nose.
Persons who have hypertension or are on antihypertensive medications, may experience nose bleed when their blood pressure (BP) shoots up. If this is the case, then the person must be taken to the nearest hospital to get his BP checked. If the BP is high, then he/she will require the control of the hypertension first to stop the nose bleed.
Other conditions like bleeding disorders also can cause a nosebleed. Visit your family physician for advice.
In any case, if the bleeding continues or symptoms like headache or dizziness appear, contact the nearest Apollo Emergency immediately.
A burn is an injury to the skin caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, light, radiation or friction. A scald happens when the injury is caused by hot liquids. Most burns affect only the skin. Rarely, deeper tissues, such as muscle, bone, and blood vessels can also be injured.
Minor burns may be treated at home with first soothing the burn with cool running water and then applying an antiseptic burn cream like BURNOL.
For more serious burns or scalds, the affected person has to be taken to the hospital to control the pain, apply dressing and to give antibiotics.
In cases where there are severe, life threatening or electrical burns, the victim will have to be taken to a specialised burns center for advanced care.
In case of burns caused by hazardous chemicals, electrical current or ionizing radiation, contact the nearest Apollo Emergency immediately.
Poisoning occurs when somebody is exposed to a harmful substance, either by ingestion (swallowing), inhalation (breathing in), or skin exposure. A lot of poisonings are accidental. Symptoms of poisoning can take time to develop. So do not hesitate in getting medical help if you think someone might need it.
Some examples of poisons are pesticides, insecticides, rodent killers, phenyl, chemicals, overdose of prescription drugs, etc.
Symptoms of poisoning could be anything ranging from a minor skin rash, vomiting, abdominal pain, etc, to serious symptoms like unconsciousness, bleeding from mouth, seizures, etc.
In case of poisoning or suspected poisoning, take the victim to the nearest hospital for a stomach wash and further treatment. Do not panic and always reassure the victim. Take the container of the poison, as it will help the emergency doctor to identify the poison and administer an antidote if available. Do not allow the victim to take any food or liquid orally. Do not induce vomiting.
If the poisonous substance has contaminated the clothes and skin, remove them and wash the skin with soap and water. Wear gloves to avoid exposing yourself to the poison.
Remember, when poisoning occurs, contact the nearest Apollo Emergency immediately.
A heart attack occurs when a clot blocks the blood vessels which supply the heart muscle. When this happen the heart muscle starts dying and its pumping ability gets affected. The symptoms which occur during a heart attack are chest pain or chest discomfort, chest pain which radiates to the arm, neck or jaw, difficulty breathing or light headedness.
Many times, a person may not realize that he or she is having a heart attack, and quite a few who harbour doubts to that effect, spend a considerable length of time in self denial. If you or someone has one or more of these symptoms, get to a hospital where a cardiologist will be available immediately. Do not drive your vehicle, instead get somebody to drive you to the hospital.
Time is critical once chest pain starts because the heart muscle starts to die within 1-2 hours after it stops getting blood, and within six hours, almost all the affected parts of the heart could be irreversibly damaged. Therefore it is important to intervene as soon as possible and reestablish the blood flow by giving drug which dissolves the clot or by performing a specialised procedure (called Angioplasty) which opens the blocked blood vessel.
Remember, when chest pain occurs, contact the nearest Apollo Emergency immediately.
A headache is defined as continuous or intermittent pain in head or in back side of upper neck. Symptoms of headache may appear suddenly or may be present since a long period of time depending on the cause of headache. The treatment varies from patient to patient & depends on the severity as well as the cause.
SOME CAUSES OF HEADACHE
– Tension, stress and anxiety
– High blood pressure
– A clot blocking blood vessels in the brain
– Bleeding from a broken blood vessel in the brain
– Vision problems
The following associated symptoms are considered serious and need a CT scan or neurologist to rule out a major underlying cause.
– Sudden onset of a very severe headache
– Worst ever headache
– Dramatic change in severity of headache
– Altered level of consciousness (feeling more sleepy or drowsy)
– Associated with continuous vomiting.
– Associated with visual disturbances like blurring of vision.
– Associated with history of recent trauma or head injury.
In case any of the above symptoms are present contact the nearest Apollo Emergency immediately.
Lasik is one of the procedure inorder to get rid of glasses. Lasik isLasik procedure involves first creating a thin flap of cornea with an instrument called the microkeratome. Followed by lifting of the flap and laser treatment to reshape the cornea. The flap is then repositioned in its original place. Improvement in vision is noted right from the next day.
The beam profile of Wave light laser has been wave front optimized, hence it removes lesser amount of corneal tissue when compared to other laser machines, thus making the treatment more safer for your eyes. Wavefront optimization also ensures that you do not experience any .
Glare or halos during the night while looking at bright lights. Wavelight laser allows multiple options for customized treatments, such as wave front guided, topography guided, Q factor guided treatments. Such treatment modalities are far superior when compared to those with other lasers such as zyoptix, custom vue, or custom cornea
Both PRK and LASIK procedures are absolutely painless and are performed as outpatient procedure using topical anesthetic eye drops. The entire procedure lasts for only 10 15 minutes and you will be awake during the entire procedure. During the treatment you are required to look at a fixation light while the laser is performed and you will also hear the noise of the laser machine during the treatment. The actual laser treatment only lasts for 15 to 45 seconds. Following the treatment you can return home immediately. However you should make arrangements for a friend or relative to take you home after the procedure.
After going through our site there will be many doubts rising in your mind. We have tried to answer few general questions for more details you can contact us we will be more than happy to be of assistance to you
- Am I eligible for LASIK?
- While most patients are eligible for LASIK, not everyone is.
- An ideal candidate for refractive surgery ?
- Must be atleast 18 years of age with stable refraction for 1 year.
- No associated eye diseases.
- No connective tissue disorders.
- Must discontinue contact lens wear 2 weeks prior to refractive surgery.
Eligibility also depends on the amount of refractive errors , the curvature and thickness of the cornea and a number of other factors that an ophthalmologist must evaluate. Proper patient selection is vital for successful refractive surgery and a satisfied patient.
Will my vision improve immediately?
There is a considerable improvement in unaided vision following the treatment. Following PRK the vision improves 3-4 days later once the surface healing in complete. Following LASIK this improvement is noted right from the next day. However a slight fluctuation of vision may occur over the next few months as the healing process continues.
What are the possible side effects?
Usually most patients are quite comfortable following LASIK. There is a moderate amount of pain following PRK on day 1, which reduces subsequently. There may be transient light sensitivity, glare & foreign body sensation, or dryness in the treated eye. Sometimes there may be a slight under correction or over correction following the procedure.
Will I need to wear glasses or contact lenses after the procedure?
Both PRK and LASIK are designed to allow you to discontinue the use of corrective lenses for routine daily work. In some patients with higher refractive errors corrective lenses of lower power may still be required following the treatment. In some individuals this residual refractive error can be corrected by a second refractive procedure
When can I resume normal activities?
You can return to work after 3 days if PRK has been performed. Following LASIK you can return to work the following day. While most activities can be resumed, it is better to avoid swimming, contact sports etc at least for a one-month duration.
Are the results of LASIK permanent?
LASIK permanently removes corneal tissue to reshape the eye in order to improve refraction. The physical results are permanent. However, you should be aware that since the eyes can still change with time, LASIK does not prevent presbyopia or affect this condition once it does occur.
Should I undergo LASIK?
Ophthalmologists all over the world have been reshaping the cornea using the excimer laser since the 1980s. LASIK has been performed internationally for approximately 10 years now. While refractive surgery does not promise perfect vision, it does hold the promise of reducing one’s dependence on contacts or glasses. For many people the reduction will allow them to more freely pursue their hobbies, sports activities or career options.