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Vegetable Soup

Posted by on Apr 14, 2015 in Apollo Health Blog, General Health | Comments Off

Vegetable Soup

A combination of vegetables makes our food rich in vitamins & minerals. It is easy to combine all of them into  a soup.

Ingredients:

  • 5 g butter
  • 25 g green onion, chopped
  • 1 clove garlic, crushed
  • 1 small tomato, diced
  • 25 g peeled, chopped carrots
  • 25 g beans, chopped
  • 25 g peas
  • 50 g pumpkin/bottle gourd
  • 250 ml water
  • Salt to taste
  • Freshly ground black pepper, to taste

Procedure:
Heat butter in a large pot. Stir in onions; cook until the onion has softened. Add the other vegetables. Cover and cook until vegetables have softened slightly. Add water.

Bring to a simmer and reduce heat to low. Cover and let simmer until vegetables are tender. Add salt, pepper, to taste. Remove from heat, cool and blend slightly. Reheat before serving

Calories:        100 K cal per serving

 

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Recipe by Ms. Sunita Pant Bansal

What is Breast Reconstruction?

Posted by on Apr 9, 2015 in Apollo Health Blog, Doctor's Articles | Comments Off

What is Breast Reconstruction?

Breast Reconstruction is a surgery to make a new breast shape after removal of the breast (mastectomy) or removal of some breast tissue (lumpectomy or partial mastectomy)

The main ways of making a new breast shape include

  1. Removing the whole breast and the skin and then putting in an implant to gradually stretch the remaining skin and muscle
  2. Removing just the breast tissue, but leaving the skin ,and putting in an implant(a skin sparing mastectomy)
  3. Reconstruction with your own living tissue taken from another part of your body
  4. A combination of your own tissue and an implant.

Prior to surgery, the type of procedure planned will be discussed in detail with the patient.

The surgeon aims to create a breast similar in size and shape to your own breast.

What is an Implant?

It is a semi solid substance made of -Saline or silicane gel covered in a strong synthetic coating which is easily acceptable by the body and

is called therapeutic Mammoplasty. The surgeon removes the tumor and an area of surrounding tissue matches the normal remaining breast in size and shape.

When to have breast reconstruction

  1. Immediate reconstruction -You can have reconstruction at the same time as your breast cancer surgery
  2. Delayed reconstruction -after completion of cancer treatment

 

RECONSTRUCTION AFTER CONSERVATIVE SURGERY

  1. Quadrantectomy and Miniflap Reconstruction-A Quadrantectomy means the surgeon removes about a quarter of the breast tissue. This type of surgery leaves a dent in the breast and means the treated breast ends up smaller than the other breast. But is sometimes possible to get back the shape of the breast by filling the dent with a small area of living tissue. The surgeon usually uses tissue from your back to do this- called a Latissimus Dorsi Flap. You will need radiotherapy to the remaining beast tissue to reduce the risk of the cancer coming back.
  2. Reshaping the breast -Reshaping may be an option if you need part of your breast removed and you have quite large breasts. It. They then reshape the remaining breast tissue to create a smaller breast. You will need radiotherapy to this remaining breast tissue to reduce the risk of cancer coming back. At the same time as your reconstructive surgery you can also have surgery to make your breast smaller (breast reduction)so that they match in size.

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Dr T P S Bhandari,

Surgical Oncologist,

Apollo Cancer Hospital ,

Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad

Bone Cancer‬

Posted by on Apr 8, 2015 in Apollo Health Blog | Comments Off

Bone Cancer‬

This type of cancer‬ is a #cancer of the cells that make up the bones‬ of your body. When this cancer is found in bones, it has usually started in other another location in the body and has spread to the bones. This process will originate a phenomenon that is known as metastatic cancer of the bones.

The 3 most common types of ‪‎primary bone cancer‬ are the following:

• Osteosarcoma- This type of cancer arises from osteoid tissue in the bone. Most of the times this tumor occurs in the knee and upper arm;

• Chondrosarcoma- This type of cancer normally begins in cartilaginous tissue. Cartilage pads the ends of bones and lines the joints. Chondrosarcoma occurs most often in the pelvis (located between the hip bones), upper leg, and shoulder. Sometimes a chondrosarcoma contains cancerous bone cells. In that case, doctors classify the tumor as an osteosarcoma.

• Ewing’s Sarcoma – This type of cancer most commonly occurs between 5 and 20 years of age. The most common locations are the upper and lower leg, pelvis, upper arm, and ribs

How is bone cancer diagnosed? Take a look!

• X-rays – This method can show the location, size, and shape of a bone tumor. If this exam suggests that something is wrong, the doctor will recommend special imaging tests.

• A bone scan – During this test, a small amount of radioactive material is injected into a blood vessel and travels through the bloodstream; it then collects in the bones and is detected by a scanner.

• A computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan, which is a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles, that are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine.

• A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- During this procedure, it’s used a powerful magnet linked to a computer to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body.

• Biopsy – During this test will be removed a tissue sample from the bone tumor to determine whether cancer is present.

Some symptoms of bone cancer

• Bone pain
• Swelling and tenderness near the affected area
• Broken bone
• Fatigue
• Unintended weight loss

 

By:

Dr. Vijay Anand Reddy

Director Of Apollo Cancer Hospital

Apollo Health City

Jubile Hills

Hyderabad

Food Safety

Posted by on Apr 7, 2015 in Apollo Health Blog, Doctor's Articles | Comments Off

Food Safety
  1. Food safety begins from farm till the food reaches our plate (i.e) from production, preparation, storing and serving of the food.
  2. Two most important concerns in food safety are food handling and food adulteration
  3. Safe food handling helps in preventing entry of pathogenic organisms into the food which could lead to typhoid, paratyphoid, bacillary and amoebic dysentery.
  4. Food adulteration is where the quality or the given nature of the food substance is reduced either through addition of a foreign substance or removal of a vital element
  5. Food adulteration could lead to health hazards like gastro intestinal disturbances, muscular paralysis, convulsions etc depending upon the adulterants like metallic or physical substances like sand or animal filth.
  6. Toxic colors like lead chromate, metanil yellow, rhodamine B etc in excess could lead to abnormalities of eyes, bone, skin, lungs, ovaries, testis etc,
  7. Public awareness and education could help in preventing unhygienic practices of food handling either at home or food service industries.
  8. Resistance to use of adulterated food products by the consumers will help in improvising the quality of the food by food service industries.
  9. Food safety measures helps in providing safe and healthy food for healthier nation

 

Ms. Sowmya K
M. Sc (nutn), R.D., C.D.E,
Regional Manager- Dietetics,
Apollo Sugar Clinics

Head and Neck cancer causes

Posted by on Apr 6, 2015 in Apollo Health Blog, Doctor's Articles | Comments Off

Head and Neck cancer causes

       Smokeless tobacco use like chewing or snuff and alcohol are the two most important risk factors for head and neck cancers. People who use both tobacco and alcohol are at greater risk of developing these cancers. Paan (betel quid) has been strongly associated oral cancer. In cases who do not have above mentioned habits, poor oral hygiene and jagged teeth may cause cancers of the oral cavity. Cancer may develop in presence of white patch or oral submucosal fibrosisHuman papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially HPV- 11 and 16, is a risk factor for some types of head and neck cancers, particularly oropharyngeal cancers that involve the tonsils or the base of the tongue. Occupational exposure to wood dust is a risk factor for nasopharyngeal cancer. Industrial exposure to wood or nickel dust or formaldehyde is a risk factor for cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity.

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Dr. Arsheed .H.Hakeem

Consultant Head and Neck Oncologist/Surgeon

Apollo Cancer Hospitals, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad.

 

How to diagnose Autism?

Posted by on Apr 2, 2015 in Apollo Health Blog, Doctor's Articles | Comments Off

How to diagnose Autism?

How common is Autism?

Autistic Spectrum disorder was first described in 1943 by Kanner. It is not a rare condition.  It is more prevalent than cancer or diabetes in children, with the current incidence of 1:500 children.

 

Why should Autism be diagnosed early?

Autism is a treatable disorder. Early screening and identification are crucial for improving the outcomes of children with autism. Accurate diagnosis leads to improved functioning and reduces the severity of symptoms.

 

When do the symptoms present?

The improved understanding of this medical disorder has emerged over the past 2 decades only though symptoms are present in 1st year the children usually diagnosed between 2-3 years.

 

Can Autism be diagnosed by a blood test?

There is no biological marker or laboratory test for the diagnosis of autism. History remains the most important tool used to screen.

 

Who can Diagnose?

The diagnosis of autism requires a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. Diagnosis and evaluation should be performed by professionals who specialise in the treatment of children with autism like child psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologist etc.  The doctor should co-ordinate the work of the other service providers to avoid duplication of the work.

A thorough medical and neurological evaluation should be performed to look for any medical explanation of the symptoms

Then the diagnosis is confirmed by formal evaluation by at least 2 trained professionals independently.

 

What are co-morbidities with Autism?

Comorbidities are prevalent and difficult to diagnose in children with autisms because of communication problems. They are usually under-diagnosed.

All children with Autism should be screened regularly for Sleep difficulties, eating problems, pica, ADHD, Seizures, aggression, anxiety, depression, learning difficulties etc.

 

What investigations are needed?

Investigations vary and need to be individualised.

EEG should not be done routinely. Performed only if clinical seizures or history of regression.

MRI brain or Neuro Imaging is not to be done routinely. It is performed if any neurological features are there which are not explained by autism. Functional imaging modalities (MRI, SPECT and PET) are considered for research purposes only

Metabolic screening should be done if only clinically indicated.

Genetic testing if clinically indicated, for Fragile X, Karyotype, Rett Syndrome etc.

 

Should they be evaluated for Allergies?

Allergy testing, hair analysis for trace elements, micronutrients such as vitamin levels are not recommended.

 

What are the available treatment modalities?

Behavioural modification and applied behavioural analysis (ABA) are the mainstays of treatment.

The dietary modification does not have scientific evidence. The dietary restrictions if at all are to be prescribed, have to be done under the supervision of a trained medical doctor. Adequate supplementations should be prescribed as children are grown and lack of essential nutrients can be detrimental.

Management of Comorbidities is important as they are chronic and not transient. They tend to persist and impair the quality of life of the child.

 

Can this condition occur again in the next pregnancy?

Almost 50-fold increased risk of having a second child on the autistic spectrum (1 in 20 to 1 in 10, as compared with 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 500 for the general population)

Autism is a treatable condition with a wide range of outcomes. Information about the benefits of early intervention for children with autism needs to be widely disseminated to health care professionals and others working with young children and families.  Health care providers and others need to increase their comfort level in talking with families about autism, which is a treatable disorder.

Paediatricians can and should play an important role in raising suspicion of autism, paving the way to appropriate referral to professionals knowledgeable about autism.

 

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Dr. Pranathi Gutta, MBBS ; MRCPCH(UK)

Consultant Paediatric Neurologist,

Apollo Health City, Jubliee Hills, Hyderabad

LIGHT IT UP BLUE (LIUB)

Posted by on Apr 2, 2015 in Apollo Health Blog, Doctor's Articles | Comments Off

LIGHT IT UP BLUE (LIUB)

Many prominent buildings and natural features such as the Niagara Falls on the earth will be in the hue of BLUE. WHY?? This is in support of April 2, World Autism Awareness Day (WAAD). This day is used to raise awareness about a disorder which still carries a lot of underreporting and incorrect approach to treatment.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurological lifelong developmental disability that affects how a person communicates with, relates to other people and learns. It also affects how they make sense of the world around them. It is a spectrum condition-while all people with autism share certain difficulties, their condition will affect them in different ways. Some people with autism are able to live relatively independent lives but others may have accompanying learning disabilities and need a lifetime of specialist support. People with autism may also experience over- or under-sensitivity to sounds, touch, tastes, smells, light or colours. Thus the learning, thinking and problem-solving abilities of people with ASD can range from gifted to severely impaired/challenged.

Asperger’s syndrome is a form of autism. People with Asperger’s syndrome are often of average or above average intelligence. They have fewer problems with speech but may still have difficulties with understanding and processing language. Autistic disorder, Pervasive Development disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) are part of the ASD.

 

Some Common Signs Of Autism-
Hallmark feature of ASD is impaired social interaction.  As early as infancy, a baby with ASD may be unresponsive to people or focus intently on one item to the exclusion of others for long periods of time.  A child with ASD may appear to develop normally and then withdraw and become indifferent to social engagement.

Children with an ASD may fail to respond to their names and often avoid eye contact with other people.  They have difficulty interpreting what others are thinking or feeling because they can’t understand social cues, such as tone of voice or facial expressions, and don’t watch other people’s faces for clues about appropriate behaviour.  They may lack empathy. Many children with an ASD engage in repetitive movements such as rocking and twirling, or in self-abusive behaviour such as biting or head-banging.  They also tend to start speaking later than other children and may refer to themselves by name instead of “I” or “me.”  Children with an ASD don’t know how to play interactively with other children.  Some speak in a sing-song voice about a narrow range of favourite topics, with little regard for the interests of the person to whom they are speaking.

Children with characteristics of an ASD may have co-occurring conditions, including Fragile X syndrome (which causes intellectual disability), tuberous sclerosis, epileptic seizures, Tourette syndrome, learning disabilities, and attention deficit disorder.  About 20 to 30 percent of children with an ASD develop epilepsy by the time they reach adulthood.

Causes of Autism-

Scientists are not certain about what causes ASD, but likely that both genetics and environment play a role.  Researchers have identified a number of genes associated with the disorder.  Studies of people with ASD have found irregularities in several regions of the brain.  Other studies suggest that people with ASD have abnormal levels of serotonin or other neurotransmitters in the brain.  These abnormalities suggest that ASD could result from the disruption of normal brain development early in foetal development caused by defects in genes that control brain growth and that regulate how brain cells communicate with each other, possibly due to the influence of environmental factors on gene function.  While these findings are intriguing, they are preliminary and require further study.

 

Does Autism have a magic cure?

There is no cure for ASDs.  Therapies and behavioural interventions are designed to remedy specific symptoms and can bring about substantial improvement.  The ideal treatment plan coordinates therapies and interventions that meet the specific needs of individual children.  Most health care professionals agree that the earlier the intervention, the better.

 

Educational/Behavioural Interventions

Therapists use highly structured and intensive skill-oriented training sessions to help children develop social and language skills, such as Applied Behavioural Analysis.  Family counselling for the parents and siblings of children with an ASD often helps families cope with the particular challenges of living with a child with an ASD.

It is very important to have an early and correct diagnosis from professionals. Albert Einstein the famous physicist, Amadeus Mozart, the father of modern western music, Bob Dylan American musician and artist, Satoshi Tajiri game designer, creator of the Pokémon series are just few of the names of individuals who have been identified under ASD. The crux is life is still beautiful from the angle of individuals with ASD condition/s. We just need to be look through their lenses. So LET IT BE BLUE for more humanity.

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Dr.Namita Singh,

Consultant Neuropsychologist,

Apollo Health City, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad

‎Thyroid Cancer

Posted by on Apr 2, 2015 in Apollo Health Blog, Doctor's Articles | Comments Off

‎Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid Cancer‬ is a disease that you get when abnormal cells begin to grow in your thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is shaped like a butterfly and is located in the front of your neck. It makes hormones that regulate the way your body uses energy and that help your body work normally.

SYMPTOMS:

Thyroid cancer can cause several symptoms:

You may get a lump or swelling in your neck. This is the most common symptom.
You may have pain in your neck and sometimes in your ears.
You may have trouble swallowing.
You may have trouble breathing or have constant wheezing.
Your voice may be hoarse.
You may have a frequent cough that is not related to a cold.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF THYROID CANCER

1. Papillary thyroid cancer. The most common form of thyroid cancer, papillary cancer arises from follicular cells, which produce and store thyroid hormones.

2. Follicular thyroid cancer. This cancer also arises from the follicular cells of the thyroid. It usually affects people older than age 50.

3. Medullary thyroid cancer. This cancer begins in thyroid cells called C cells that produce the hormone calcitonin. Elevated levels of calcitonin in the blood can detect medullary thyroid cancer at a very early stage.

4. Anaplastic thyroid cancer. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare and rapidly growing cancer that is very difficult to treat.

5. Thyroid lymphoma. Thyroid lymphoma is a rare form of thyroid cancer that begins in the immune system cells in the thyroid and grows very quickly. Thyroid

RISK FACTORS:

Female sex. Thyroid cancer occurs more often in women than in men.

Exposure to high levels of radiation. Examples of high levels of radiation include those that come from radiation treatment to the head and neck and from fallout from such sources as nuclear power plant accidents or weapons testing.

Certain inherited genetic syndromes. Genetic syndromes that increase the risk of thyroid cancer include familial medullary thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia and familial adenomatous polyposis.

 

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Dr Vijay Anand P Reddy,

 Director of Apollo Cancer Hospital, Hyderabad.

Knee Pain Relieving Excercises

Posted by on Apr 2, 2015 in Apollo Health Blog, Doctor's Articles | Comments Off

Knee Pain Relieving Excercises

Knee Pain can be relieved with some basic excercises. These excercises can be performed indoor. If the problem still exists and its sever along with the excercises you need have Doctors advice and medciations.

knee pain excercises

Dr. P. Sharat Kumar

MS[ORTH], MCh[Orth]UK, DipSEM-GB&I[IABSEM], MFSEM[UK], FFSEM[I]

Apollo Health City,Jubilee Hills,Hyderabad.

Measles in Children

Posted by on Mar 31, 2015 in Apollo Health Blog, General Health | Comments Off

Measles in Children

Measles is highly contagiuos and easily spreads. Measles is also called as Rubeola. It is a respiratory infection caused by a virus which  leads to Measles. Measles is most commonly seen in children below 5-6 years. Children become weak, thin, dehydrated and their immunity system also becomes weak. Recovery period is for almost about 15-21days.

Signs & Symptoms:

High Fever for about a week

Skin Rashes

Sever Cough

Red & Watering Eyes

Diarrhoea

Dehydration

Pneumonia

 Vaccination:

Prevention is better than Cure. Prior Vacciantion helps to safeguard children from getting effected by Mealses.  Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine (MMR / MMRV) need to be given when children are 12 to 15 months old and again when they’re 4 to 6 years old.

Immediate doctor consultaion is required for children if any of the signs and syptoms are seen.