Esophageal Cancer is cancer that occurs in the ‪‎esophagus‬ — a long, hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach. Your esophagus carries food you swallow to your stomach to be digested.
Esophageal cancer occurs when cells in your esophagus develop errors (mutations) in their DNA. The errors make cells grow and divide out of control.

Main Symptoms of this type of cancer

Trouble‬ Swallowing

The most common symptom of esophageal cancer is a problem swallowing, with a feeling like the food is stuck in the throat or chest, or even choking on food.

Chest‬ pain

Sometimes, people complain of pain or discomfort in the middle part of their chest. Some people describe a feeling of pressure or burning in the chest.

‪‎Weight‬ loss

About half of people with esophageal cancer lose weight (without trying to). This happens because their swallowing problems keep them from eating enough to maintain their weight.

Risk‬ Factors

• consuming alcohol
• smoking
• having a reflux disorder such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
• being overweight
• not eating enough fruits and vegetables
• having Barrett’s esophagus (a damaged esophageal lining due to GERD)

How can you detect Esophageal cancer?

• The use of an instrument called an endoscope. A camera attached to a tube goes down your throat and allows your doctor to view the lining of your esophagus to check for abnormalities and irritation.
• An X-ray taken after you ingest a chemical called barium that allows your physician to see the lining of your esophagus. This is known as a barium swallow.
• A biopsy. This is a process in which a sample of the suspicious tissue is removed with the help of an endoscope and sent to a lab for testing.


Dr. Vijay Anand Reddy, M.D.(RT), D.N.B, Medical Onc, (ESMO),FUICC (UK),FNDM (USA),FUICC (AUS)

Director Apollo Cancer Institutes,
Apollo Health City, Hyderabad