Thyroid Cancer is a disease that you get when abnormal cells begin to grow in your thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is shaped like a butterfly and is located in the front of your neck. It makes hormones that regulate the way your body uses energy and that help your body work normally.
Thyroid cancer can cause several symptoms:
You may get a lump or swelling in your neck. This is the most common symptom.
You may have pain in your neck and sometimes in your ears.
You may have trouble swallowing.
You may have trouble breathing or have constant wheezing.
Your voice may be hoarse.
You may have a frequent cough that is not related to a cold.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF THYROID CANCER
1. Papillary thyroid cancer. The most common form of thyroid cancer, papillary cancer arises from follicular cells, which produce and store thyroid hormones.
2. Follicular thyroid cancer. This cancer also arises from the follicular cells of the thyroid. It usually affects people older than age 50.
3. Medullary thyroid cancer. This cancer begins in thyroid cells called C cells that produce the hormone calcitonin. Elevated levels of calcitonin in the blood can detect medullary thyroid cancer at a very early stage.
4. Anaplastic thyroid cancer. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare and rapidly growing cancer that is very difficult to treat.
5. Thyroid lymphoma. Thyroid lymphoma is a rare form of thyroid cancer that begins in the immune system cells in the thyroid and grows very quickly. Thyroid
Female sex. Thyroid cancer occurs more often in women than in men.
Exposure to high levels of radiation. Examples of high levels of radiation include those that come from radiation treatment to the head and neck and from fallout from such sources as nuclear power plant accidents or weapons testing.
Certain inherited genetic syndromes. Genetic syndromes that increase the risk of thyroid cancer include familial medullary thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia and familial adenomatous polyposis.
Dr Vijay Anand P Reddy,
Director of Apollo Cancer Hospital, Hyderabad.