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Arrhythmias in Adult Patients

Arrhythmias (Abnormal or irregular heart rhythms)

im1Arrhythmias irregular beating of heart is due to different reasons like existing heart disease, blood electrolyte imbalances, cadriomyopathy or coronary artery disease.

The symptoms are dizziness, shortness of breath, palpitations, pain in chest, fatigue etc. Sometimes none of these symptoms might be there and only on evaluation arrhythmias can be detected.

There are different types of arrhythmias

  • Bradycardia The heart beat is slower than the regular or normal heart i.e below 60 beats per minute.
  • Tachycardia The heart beat is faster than the reglar rhythm i.e more than 100 beats per minute
  • Supra ventricular Arrhythmias Arrhythmias occurring in the upper chambers of the heart are called super ventricular
  • Ventricular Arrhythmias Arrhythmias occurring in the lower chambers of the heart are called ventricular Arrhythmias
  • Brady Arrhythmias Arrhythmias occurring due to existing heart disease.

Diagnostics

  • ECG (Electrocardiogram)
  • Stress Test
  • Catheterization
  • Holter Monitor

Treatment Pace maker implantation

im2

A pace maker is a device used to manage arrhythmias. It helps in optimizing the heart rate to the desired level. The device sends electrical impulses to the heart muscle and keeps tracks of the hearts activity.

  • Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators (ICD) Insertions
  • Cardioversions
  • Medical Management
  • Radio Frequency Ablation
  • Maze Procedure (Surgery)
  • Pulmonary Vein Isolation with LD reduction

im3The heart has 4 main valves mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary valve. The blood flow out of the heart is through valves. They regulate the flow of the blood for the heart. When these valves do not function correctly it affects the entire functioning of the heart. There are 2 different types of valve dysfunctions a) valvular stenosis b) valvular regurgitation.

Valvular stenosis: Stenosis or narrow valve obstructs the blood flow and the heart has to pump harder resulting in lower blood flow.

Valvular regurgitation: Here the valve does not close properly once the blood flows in resulting in backward flow of blood in to the atria when the heart contracts

Causes

Valve diseases can be genetic and children are born with valve dysfunctions or in adults valve diseases occur due to other conditions like rheumatic fever, endocarditis.

The other causes basically are existing heart related problems like hypertension or confirmed heart diseases like cardiomyopathy,coronary artery disease, aneurysms, heart attacks etc.

Symptoms 
Breathlessness, Usual weight gain, palpitations, swelling of legs and ankles etc

Diagnostics

  • ECG
  • Catheterization
  • MRI
  • PETCT SCAN

Treatment : Interventional Procedures

Though surgery is ideal in some scenarios patient is unable to withstand a surgery due to their physical condition in such patients interventional procedures are required like PERCUTANEOUS MITRAL, AORTIC AND PULMONIC VALVOTOMY FOR STENOSIS which is performed the cardiac interventional team at Apollo Health City.